Antigenic Variation: Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Relapsing Disease (Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 8) -

ISBN: 3805543433 9783805543439: OCLC Number: 15550573: Description: 244 pages: illustrations; 25 cm. Series Title: Contributions to microbiology and immunology, v.8. @articleosti_6954354, title = Antigenic variation: Molecular and genetic mechanisms of relapsing disease, author = Cruse, J M and Lewis, R E, abstractNote = This book contains 10 chapters. They are: Contemporary Concepts of Antigenic Variation; Antigenic Variation in the Influenza Viruses; Mechanisms of Escape of Visna Lentiviruses from Immunological Control; A Review of Antigenic. Antigenic variation is a strategy used by a broad diversity of microbial pathogens, from small RNA viruses, notably the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV, to large eukaryotic parasites with multiple chromosomes, illustrated by trypanosomal and malarial parasites, to persist within mammalian hosts. Jul 01, 2004 · SUMMARY. Phase and antigenic variation result in a heterogenic phenotype of a clonal bacterial population, in which individual cells either express the phase-variable protein s or not, or express one of multiple antigenic forms of the protein, respectively.

Relapsing fever still remains a neglected disease and little is known on its reservoir, tick vector and physiopathology in the vertebrate host. The disease occurs in temperate as well as tropical countries. Relapsing fever borreliae are spirochaetes, members of the Borreliaceae family which also contain Lyme disease spirochaetes. They are mainly transmitted by Ornithodoros soft ticks, but some. The experimental studies of Brucei group trypanosomes presented here demonstrate that the balance of host and parasite factors, especially IFN-γ GPI-sVSG respectively, and the timing of cellular exposure to them, dictate the predominant MP and DC activation profiles present at any given time during infection and within specific tissues. The timing of changes in innate immune cell functions. of antigenic variation involves a gene rearrangement to local- ize a new variant vmp gene at a unique expression site 11. The spirochete encodes many silent vmp genes, and at least 25 antigenically distinct serotypes of this bacterium can be gener Mechanisms of immune evasion in schistosomiasis. In Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology; Antigenic variation: molecular and genetic mechanisms of relapsing disease. J. Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumococcus, a major human pathogen, is well known for its adaptation to various host environments. Multiple DNA inversions in the three DNA methyltransferase hsdS genes hsdS A, hsdS B, and hsdS C of the colony opacity determinant cod locus generate extensive epigenetic and phenotypic diversity. However, it is unclear whether all three hsdS genes are.

Genetic basis of phase and antigenic variation in bacteria, p. 57–76. In T. H. Birkbeck and C. W. Penn ed., Antigenic Variation in Infectious Diseases. Society for General Microbiology. The bdr Gene Families of the Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes: Potential Influence on Biology, Pathogenesis, and Evolution.pdf Synopses Emer ging Infectious Diseases V ol. 6, No. 2. Relapsing fever spirochetes, such as Borrelia hermsii, proliferate to high levels in their hosts’ bloodstream until production of IgM against borrelial surface proteins promotes bacterial clearance.The mechanisms by which B. hermsii survives in host blood, as well as the immune mediators that control this infection, remain largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that B. hermsii is. It is well-established that antigenic variation, mediated by the Vmp proteins, represents an important pathogenic mechanism for the relapsing fever spirochetes 7. The dominant molecular mechanism associated with Vmp antigenic variation is gene conversion 2. Jan 18, 2002 · The mechanism of antigenic variation involves a gene rearrangement to localize a new variant vsp or vlp gene at a specific expression site located on a linear plasmid 5. The spirochaete encodes many silent vsp and vlp genes, and at least 25 antigenically distinct serotypes of this bacterium can be generated from a single bacterium 51 44.

Microbial Pathogenesis 1988; 5: 1 49-157 Mini-review Lentiviruses of animals are biological models of the human immunodeficiency viruses 0. Narayan,'- 2 M. C. Zink,' D. Huso,'. Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology. 1987; 8:125–137. [PubMed:. Baxt B., Mason P. W. Animal derived antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A 12 have low affinity for cells in culture. Journal of Virology. Coffin J. M. Search for the mechanism of genetic variation in the pro gene of human immunodeficiency virus. Antigenic variation is a strategy used by a broad diversity of microbial pathogens to persist within the mammalian host. Whereas viruses make use of a minimal proofreading capacity combined with large amounts of progeny to use random mutation for variant generation, antigenically variant bacteria have evolved mechanisms which use a stable genome, which aids in protecting the fitness of the progeny. Emergence of Msp2 antigenic variants during cyclic A. marginale bacteremia. A. marginale replicates to >10 8 organisms per ml during acute infection; the immune response does not completely clear the infection which persists in a series of sequential bacteremia peaks. Organisms in each peak express an antigenically variant immunodominant surface protein, Msp2, which is not recognized by. The tick-borne borreliae are the causative agents of relapsing fever and Lyme disease worldwide. Borrelia spirochaetes are motile, helical, microaerophilic organisms that have flagellae located.

Evidence for the contribution of the host species to the extent of antigenic variation of Nl influenza virus neuraminidase. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 172, 1 – 11. Medvedeva, M. N., Aron, R. A. & Golubev, D. B. 1984 a. Bacterial pathogenesis: A variation on variation in Lyme disease Michael Koomey The discovery of antigenic variation in Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, provides a potential explanation for the chronic nature of infection as well as new insights into the genetic structure of highly recombinogenic loci responsible for. These investigations have focused on identifying the mechanistic determinants responsible for antigenic variation, and genetic factors involved in host adaptation and pathogenesis. The design of these studies has recently evolved to bridge microbial genetics and molecular biology to bacterial pathogenesis under more natural conditions involving the enzootic cycle of the pathogen. Documentation of the location of the genes for important surface proteins on linear plasmids. 3 Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation in relapsing fever. The phenomenon of multi-phasic antigenic variation during relapsing fever had been recognized since the first decades of the twentieth century. Antigenic Variation. Molecular and Genetic Mecha-nisms of Relapsing Disease. Julius M. Cruse and Robert E. Lewis, Jr., Eds. Karger, Basel, 1987. 244 pp., illus. $130. Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 8. Approaches to Elucidate Mechanisms in Terato-genesis. Frank Welsch. Hemisphere Harper and Row.

The relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii undergoes multiphasic antigenic variation through gene conversion of a unique expression site on a linear plasmid by an archived variable antigen gene. Dr. Ma’s research interests include viral diseases of animals, with an emphasis on emerging zoonotic viral infections. His current research focuses on understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis and transmissibility, virus-host interaction and developing vaccines and antivirals for different zoonotic viral pathogens, such as Influenza virus, Rift Valley fever virus and other viral infections.

MECHANISM AND REGULATION OF BACTERIAL RIBOSOMAL RNA PROCESSING. RICKETTSIA SPECIES AS ORGANISMS Herbert H. Winkler Vol. 44, 1990, pp. 131–153. Download PDF. First Page Image Preview. ANTIGENIC VARIATION OF A RELAPSING FEVER BORRELIA SPECIES. A. G. Barbour. Download PDF. First Page Image Preview. MOLECULAR EVOLUTION AND GENETIC. Jun 01, 1997 · 1. Introduction. Since the discovery of S-layers in 1953 of a Spirillum sp. by Houwink, the structure of hundreds of different S-layer proteins and their morphological properties in a wide range of microorganisms have been studied in detail. In the past years genetic investigations of bacterial S-layer genes have become an important, additional contribution for a better understanding of S. SUMMARY The molecular mechanisms used by the gonococcus to initiate infection exhibit gender specificity. The clinical presentations of disease are also strikingly different upon comparison of gonococcal urethritis to gonococcal cervicitis. An intimate association occurs between the gonococcus and the urethral epithelium and is mediated by the asialoglycoprotein receptor.

Volume 230, number 1,2 FEBS LETTERS March 1988 Kandel, E.R. ed. Molecular neurobiology in neurology and psychiatry. Association for Research in Nervous and Mental. Antigenic variation in Lyme disease borreliae by promiscuous recombination of VMP-like sequence cassettes Cell. 89:. An alternate mechanism of antigenic variation during relapsing fever Molecular Microbiology. 13: 287-299.

INTRODUCTION. Relapsing fever RF is a disease caused by several species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.The illness occurs worldwide in tropical and sub-tropical areas, but is most common in Africa [1, 2].In some areas, the incidence is the highest for any bacterial disease on the continent [].All species pathogenic to man are transmitted by ticks of the genus Ornithodoros with. Antigenic switching is a consequence of the sequential expression of genes for serotype-specific major surface antigens known collectively as variable major proteins Vmps. The mechanism of antigenic variation involves a gene rearrangement to localize a new variant vmp gene at a. Programmed rearrangement of genes encoding surface antigens antigenic variation is essential for the evasion of adaptive humoral immunity by extracellular, blood-borne pathogens such as the Borrelia spp. that cause relapsing fever RF and Lyme disease LD.

Journal of Bacteriology. 2013 May;19510:2220-31. 9. Walia R, Chaconas G. Suggested role for G4 DNA in recombinational switching at the antigenic variation locus of the Lyme disease spirochete. PLoS One. 2013;82:e57792. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057792. Epub 2013 Feb 28. 10.

Although mycoplasmas lack cell walls, they are in many respects similar to the gram-positive bacteria with which they share a common ancestor. The molecular biology of mycoplasmas is intriguing because the chromosome is uniquely small <600 kb in some species and extremely A-T rich as high as 75 mol% in some species. Perhaps to accommodate DNA with a lower GC content, most mycoplasmas. Abstract. Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is the most common tick-transmitted disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and other related Borrelia species. One of the many fascinating features of this unique pathogen is an elaborate system for antigenic variation, whereby the sequence of the surface-bound. Vector competence refers to the ability of an arthropod to acquire, maintain, and successfully transmit a microbial pathogen. Tick-borne relapsing fever TBRF spirochetes are globally distributed pathogens, and most species are transmitted by argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. A defining characteristic in vector competence is an apparent specificity of a species of TBRF spirochete to a.

Antigenic Variation: Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Relapsing Disease (Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 8)

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